2 Vehicles to Remember the Holocaust

train black and whiteWe have used a variety of historical sources that included documents, artwork, posters, monuments and buildings to interpret and remember events and places.  Scroll down to study a collection of photographs from my visit to the Houston Holocaust MuseumAnalyze the Train Car and the Danish fishing boat as historical sources and explore what these artifacts tell us about the Holocaust that a book cannot. It is an emotional exhibit as one mode of transport saved Jews while the other carried them to their death (Above Photo: Train cars just arrived at Auschwitz from Hungary).

I included photographs of the museum’s interpretive information in stone and also a transcription of a Holocaust Survivor (from online) and her experience in a train car. How does the combination of an oral history help interpret these artifacts? If there were not these words with the train car, do you think that would impact its ability to tell us about the Holocaust? What emotions rise up when you read and look at these images?

THE TRAIN CAR:

Back CameraBack CameraAnna W. was born in Frankfurt, Germany, and spent her early childhood traveling with her parents and five siblings as part of a Gypsy theater troupe. In 1938, they were forced to settle in Leipzig, and were prevented from traveling or attending school.

“In early 1942, we were taken to a camp near Leipzig and… told… we were to be resettled in Poland. …We were lucky we were put on a passenger car instead of a cattle car. …The children were excited about the train ride. …We had heard nothing of Auschwitz before. …We were the first transport to arrive at the Gypsy camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau. …All the barracks were empty, there was no fence yet. It was muddy. We sank into the dirt to our knees… but each day more and more arrived. …They had barracks for 500 people and forced 1000 inside. …All my relatives, they all died there. Not one of them survived except for my cousin’s family. …”

Back Camera

Back Camera

THE DANISH FISHING BOAT:

Click here to watch this fascinating story that describes how Danes rescued their Jewish population.  When you read the interpretive plaque below what does that tell you about the actual process of ferrying 7,200 Jews out of Denmark? Where do you see examples of courage and faith today like you see in these heroic Danes?

How do these vehicles help your understanding of the Holocaust? What do you think the museum wants you to take away from their exhibit? Post a link that shows how other museums interpret the Holocaust.

Back Camera   Back Camera

Advertisements

24 thoughts on “2 Vehicles to Remember the Holocaust

  1. I will start off by answering the question of “how does the combination of oral history help interpret these artifacts?” To begin, oral history does something that the book can not, it makes one feel in touch with the history, rather than just reading it in a book. For me, when I hear a oral history it lets me understand what someone was thinking, or what situation they were in when they were at the event/place/object. Oral history gives more than just a general description in a textbook, but provides insight into a (sometimes) eye witness’ view of that moment, which in my opinion is more valuable than any textbook.

    Lastly, I will adress the question of how these two artifacts make me feel. First, the train car gives me emotions of anger, and hatred. It blows my mind that someone can hate another person so much just due to religion. I don’t understand, nor will I ever to be able to see how people could think that. Also, the holocaust strikes extra close to me as I am of Jewish decent and would be Jewish if someone on my mom’s side didn’t transfer.

    The boat although makes me feel happy, and hopeful. The boat to me represents hope, and the salvation of the Jewish People. That boat to me symbolizes hope, because when people step in that boat they have to hope for a better life, and not one under persecution. Lastly, it makes me happy because in order to get people out of a country, someone had to be willing to risk their lives in order to get the Jewish People to safety.

    • Thank you for sharing this post Nick. Museums hope to engage their visitors by eliciting emotions as they walk through an exhibit. In class you also did a great job describing the National Holocaust Museum. Sometimes it is difficult to grasp that a historical event actually occurred, much less such an horrific era like the Holocaust. Artifacts like the boat, train car, pile of shoes, etc. provide first hand links to remember and feel that event. I agree, oral histories are awesome windows to the past.

  2. I’m starting off by answering the question “what do the train car and boat tell us about the Holocaust that the book can’t?” The train showed how much the Jews suffered before they even made it to a extermination camp. Naomi Warren said that “80 to 200 people were pushed into each car, not even able to sit. Most transports carried 1000 to 2000 men, women, and children. Travel times lasted from several hours to several days. I think it lasted a lifetime.” This quote shows the conditions that they had to bear with, and how extremely long and excruciating the rides were. Not only were the rides bad, but the US Holocaust Memorial Museum stated that the Germans tried to disguise what they were actually doing. The Germans called it “resettlement to the east”, and told the Jews they were being taken to labor camps, when they were truly being brought to their deaths. I feel that if those accounts weren’t written on the walls, many people would not understand how bad the conditions of the Jews were and what they really had went through. When I read about the train I feel disappointed. I don’t understand why someone would want to kill off people of people of another race or belief that have done nothing to them. It’s also sad that the Germans tried to cover up what their true intentions were.

    The Danish fishing boat was named “sunshine”. It to me represents the Jewish being liberated and able to enjoy the light of day again. I feel that it was good that people did get crack down on the Germans’ plan of “world domination”, and that they were able to save 7,200 Jews. It was amazing considering the difficulty of transporting them, and only being able to hold 6-8 on each boat. It was also great that many neutral countries were open to hiding Jewish refugees, which shows the amount of bravery they had, The picture on the left showed me how relatively small the boats were, and that it takes a lot of courage and determination to move 7200 Jews with these small boats. Actual oral and visual accounts can show us much more than a book can, and these sources have given me a bigger understanding of some of the events of the Holocaust.

  3. Oral History:
    Oral history helps tremendously because with the human to human interaction it has, it greatly affects us more than words on page. This is because we then actually realize that it happened to people and that it is very scary to picture yourself in there situation.
    Words on Train Car:
    Yes I do believe so, because some people could just think that a sensible amount of people were put into the train cars and then they would not even of known how bad the conditions in the train car was.
    Emotions:
    I am very disgusted in how the Germans could do this to innocent people. It makes me sick because I know a lot of Jewish people from my grade school and it is just a terrible to imagine that some of the people in those train cars were somewhat related to them.
    Ferrying Jews:
    It explains that helping Jews was a tough and dangerous task. Also in the boat it was tight like in the train car, but it was worth being scrunched because they were on there way to freedom
    Examples Today:
    The only example that relates to this would be going all the way back to slavery times when people offered to hide slaves in their homes while the runaway slaves were on their way to freedom.
    Vehicles:
    They help explain that there was more to the Holocaust than the horrific killing, but the stories behind the vehicles used in that time define what the Holocaust was really like.
    Museum:
    It wants to explain that Jews are very strong. Also it explained that the Jews that got free were either lucky, or the epitome of strong.
    http://www.flholocaustmuseum.org/Exhibits.aspx

    • Interesting connection to the Underground railroad and freeing slaves. I had not made that link before but I think there is a direct correlation to the bravery of those people who helped free the slaves before the Civil War and those, like the Danes, who helped free Jews during the Holocaust. Great job.

  4. Transportation has been evolving from the dawn of time from horses to cars, from boats to submarines. It is very interesting that transportation was used to bring people to their death and save them from it. I feel that the Holocaust Museum in Texas is trying to help people understand what a big role transportation played in the holocaust. The museum displays a train car that was used to transport Jews to concentration camps, a very tragic event. This train car has a thermometer inside of it; you stated in class that when it was 95 degrees outside it was 125 degrees inside the train. 125 degrees is already very hot and when there are also many people inside the train in which there is no room to sit down it obviously got even hotter than 125 degrees. In class you read an excerpt from the book Night, I found it very interesting that people who were civilized and well behaved in society were in such panic from being in the train car that they killed a woman. This is a very clear foreshadowing of what is going to happen to most of the people in the train car, death. Opposite of the train boats were used to bring Jews to neutral Sweden. While the boats were bringing the Jews to safety the living conditions were not much better then on the train. The Jews had to remain hidden on the boat in order to avoid being spotted by German patrol ships. Most of these boats were small so there was not a lot of room for them creating a poor living environment. The reason that living in the boat was more bearable than on the train was that the Jews had the comfort that they were being brought to safety.

    This post made me ponder what exactly would happen if an event like the holocaust occurred in modern day society. What type of transportation would be used to bring people to safety and which type would be used to their death? I thought that a plane would be the most likely type of transportation used for both safety and death. Planes are the fastest type of transportation around allowing people to be saved quicker, planes would also allow the prisoners captors to bring them to farther concentration camps. I think that with all the technology around nowadays that if another holocaust were to occur the death rate would be much higher than during the holocaust that took place during World War II.

    According to an online article (http://jerusalemworldnews.com/2012/04/18/almost-half-of-israelis-fear-another-holocaust-is-possible/) many Israelites fear that another holocaust is possible 40% to be exact. Young people in Israel at first did not believe that another holocaust would occur but after they took a trip to the holocaust museum these numbers dropped. It seems that once people are aware of the horrors that went on during the holocaust they are more fearful of another holocaust. It is good that people are being educated about all the treacherous things that happened during the holocaust because then it is less likely that another holocaust could occur. People learn about history in order that the same mistakes will not be made in the future.

  5. My response on how Oral History helps us the student is Oral History tells us more than the book. Oral history gives us real events and explanations of the Holocaust. Without oral history, we would only rely on the information in the book and on short written journals that doesn’t give us a whole picture. Oral history helps me personally because when i hear their story, i almost put myself in their shoes and re-live their story. I get a full understanding of what is happening, their thoughts, and their actions, whereas in a book, you only get to see the broader picture.

    To the question of “how do the artifcats make you feel?”. I went to the Holocaust Museum in D.C. and i have stood in one of the train cars that were used in the transportation Jews, and it was the worst feeling ever. I felt hatred towards the Nazi’s and felt terribly sorry for what the Jews had to deal with during the Holocaust. I cannot believe that one man could do so much violence and hatred towards a group.
    The boat that gave life to the Jews was a relief. The fact that one of the boats was named sunshine is funny because that is the reaction i got when i heard about the Danish giving hope to the Jews. It gave me that “warm” feeling that the Danish were risking their own lives to help 6-8 Jews at a time.

    • Yes, the name of the boat in the picture on the post is great. Very appropriate. I wonder how many of these boats are still around and if any changed their names after the rescue. Thank you.

  6. I think the words with the train car are vital to its meaning. I’ve gone to many museums and memorials, and there are words and plaques all over the place. The reason that words mean so much is because they create a feeling of reflection. If I read something, I usually think about what is going on and what all of it means. When people see a train car from the Holocaust, they already think about the horrors of the people, but the words still add another layer that makes people reflect on the Holocaust and maybe their own lives.
    All of these pictures are filled with sadness. It’s hard to imagine people killing other people in such a gruesome way. One picture that stands out to me is the one with the people getting off the train. The part I hate most about the Holocaust is that the Jews didn’t even know they were going to be executed until the gas was flying around. I despise looking at all of those people that are just standing around, not making any commotion. It’s hard to look at so many people and realize that almost all of them never made it out. So many children that would have done great things were killed.
    The vehicles are another way of experiencing the Holocaust. The pain and suffering didn’t start in the gas chambers. Those people were stuffed into small train cars and some died in them. I don’t see the boat as a symbol of hope at all. It’s awful to think that the only people supporting the Jews were a bunch of Danish people with small boats. 7,000 Jews were rescued while a few million were being gased in the concentration camps. Obviously the rest of the world couldn’t help them much. I just don’t see the boat being a symbol of hope when it saved so little of the population. Assuming that 6,000,000 people were killed in the Holocaust, I calculated that around .001% of people were saved by the Danish boats. Those aren’t good odds.

    • The photo is tragic because we know what will happen next. Like another student said, if you don’t know any context, it is just a bunch of people getting off a train car. It is the historical context that makes that photo and so many others awful to see. Yes, .001% is minuscule but “7,000” number was most of the Jewish population in one country. In an event as dark as the Holocaust, victories like this or Schindler’s List or the other rescues shown on that video are pretty remarkable. If anything, the bravery these rescuers displayed is incredible. When most of Europe sat idly or were unable to act, they risked it all. Thanks for your replies.

  7. I think the fact that there are quotes from people engraved in stone at the museum really helps people that were not involved in the Holocaust understand the pain that these people went through. The first quotes shown on the stone plaque that talks about long periods of silence, moaning, screaming, crying, and death really “puts you in the shoes” of someone that was in one of the train cars.

    If the words were not there, I do not think it was be as effective on its viewers. The quotes make you think about the situations and awful conditions these people had to live with and endure throughout the war.

    When I study WWII, but more specifically the Holocaust, its almost depressing. We all know what happened in the back of our minds, but once you really start to talk about it, you really start to realize that it actually happened and people actually went through it.

    • It is depressing. Watch Joey’s clip in his reply. Yikes. This weekend I took a couple of student’s suggestions and watched “The Boy in the striped pajamas” and it was a totally depressing movie. This was not a “fishing boat” type of ending that I had expected. But it also provided another perspective to this era which I am thankful. I think it is sometimes our jobs to deal with the depressing events in history even when they hurt and are depressing. It is important. Thanks for your reply.

  8. At Marquette University High School we are required to serve those in need. Our service hours are divided up into two categories that include core hours, where we directly help those in need, and support hours, where our actions help organization and projects meant for the needy. These two acts of charity were present in the holocaust and World War II and are reflected in the modes of transportation used. The Danish fishing boat represents direct contact with those in need and gave an individual efficacious result on those lives that were saved. This service would be considered core hours and from these actions, and accounts can be made from the one on one connections made. The fishermen saw their situation, acknowledged their resources, and acted with heroism to help the persecuted. The Danish fishermen were not the only ones who wanted to use what resources they had, the English also helped with ingenuity.

    Although the British couldn’t meet and directly save the Jews during, they used ingenuity and thought to bring upon the largest amphibious invasion ever. The storming of Normandy beach required Percy Hobart’s craftiness and made transportation practical and purposeful in Hobart’s Funnies. (See link http://www.timemoneyandblood.com/HTML/normandy/HobartsFunnies/hobartsFunnies.html#Top ) One of the first tanks to land was the DD tank, which was amphibious and could swim to the shores with a large curtain held above the top of the tank to help flotation. The British used many tank applications including the bobbin, which placed a mat on the sand beaches to prevent tanks from sinking into the sand and becoming stuck. Another attachment was attaching a bridge to a tank. This combination was called the small box grider. It could place its bridge over gaps or place them on fortifications and climb over. The English developed many other modifications to their methods of transportation to help end the war and ultimately the holocaust through the invasion of Normandy.

    Winning the war against the Axis powers in Europe would entail safety to citizens, soldiers, and the wrongly persecuted. Although it was indirect, Innovation caused a massive turning point in the war to reach that goal. Theses principals, some requiring more bravery than others, are still being carried on today in many communities across the world to help those in need by using and modifying transportation.

  9. The museums and memorials that we have today which replicate aspects of the Holocaust obviously are extremely beneficial. Along with perhaps written accounts (like Night by Elie Wiesel), I think visual and tangible representations such as these train cars and the Danish fishing boats hit people the hardest in terms of fully sensationalizing the effects of the Holocaust. Without a doubt, these re-creations universally impact people on their thoughts and opinions of the Holocaust. Seeing the means by which Jews were transported to concentration camps can truly be frightening. In contrast, seeing the Danish fishing boats likely gives the public feelings of hope and retribution. I believe the creators of these memorials want their visitors to take away exactly those emotions from the sites. I think it is our duty as a generation of people to have knowledge of and remember what happened during the Holocaust.

    This is the Mission Statement of the Illinois Holocaust Museum with regards to what their intentions are: “The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is dedicated to preserving the legacy of the Holocaust by honoring the memories of those who were lost and by teaching universal lessons that combat hatred, prejudice and indifference. The museum fulfills its mission through the exhibition, preservation and interpretation of its collections and through education programs and initiatives that foster the promotion of human rights and the elimination of genocide.”

    As one can see from this statement, those at the Illinois Holocaust Museum dedicate their work to honoring and preserving the legacy of those involved in the Holocaust. They want the public to be informed of the Holocaust by the primary sources represented in their museum.

    • I like that you included this museum’s mission statement to make its purpose clear. Sometimes history can be inconceivable and these museums and artifacts help make an event as tragic and gruesome as the Holocaust be a little more understandable. There are still some who doubt the Holocaust occurred and these museums ensure that the memory is preserved as you state. Thanks.

  10. I am going to start out with answering the question “How does the combination of an oral history help interpret these artifacts?” First of all, the image depicting hundreds of Jews exiting a train car definitely does not tell the whole story. Without any oral history, one would think that it’s just people getting off of a train. The Jews look drained of their energy, but many of them do not have fear in their eyes. Their faces in this particular picture do not tell enough. Oral history gives people the real emotions inside of the Jews that were not able to be captured by a photographer. Much of the reason we do not see horror in their facial expressions, is because they had no clue that these trains were transporting them to their deaths. However, even if they didn’t know what was eventually going to happen to them, they still were at extreme discomfort being packed into these trains. “From 80 to 100 people were pushed into each car, not even able to sit. Most transports carried 1,000 to 2,000 men, women, and children. Travel time lasted from several hours to several days” (Naomi Warren). From this account, one would be able to understand the discomfort in the Jews’ faces. The area of a typical train car transporting Jews measured roughly 10 meters long and 3 meters wide. Packing 80 to 100 people in that small of an area made the train cars extremely hot and uncomfortable. The images themselves are not enough to tell the full story. From a combination of both personal accounts, and images, one is able to fit together the puzzle pieces of the holocaust, and realize truly how horrific it was.

    The most horrific part about these train rides is all the deception involved. No one new what to expect when riding on the trains. Some thought it was to transport themselves to a safer area, and resettle the Jews in eastern territories. Others believed they were on the trains to be put in work camps, but eventually be sent free. Not many of the Jews that were being transported trough the train system thought that the trains would lead them to their deaths. This deception, as cruel as it was, was a very common tactic of Hitler’s. Hitler felt that if the Jews did not know that they were going to be put to death, then they wouldn’t start uprisings. In my opinion, one of the most powerful, yet horrific scenes in the movie Schindler’s List (directed by Steven Spielberg) is when at the work camp, Plaszow, for some time, the kids get sent away on trucks to their deaths, but the children are totally oblivious to their grimm fate. Here’s the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-OpC6tnJ9c

    On the other side of things, while the trains led the Jews to their deaths, the Danish fishing boat saved their lives. First I’ll answer the question: “When you read the interpretive plaque below what does that tell you about the actual process of ferrying 7,200 Jews out of Denmark?” Well, the process tells you a lot. To start off, on the plaque, it says: “Each boat could hold 6-8 people hidden in the cargo areas below the deck” (Plaque). This statement shows that the process was very slow. Being only able to bring 6-8 people over at a time is definitely a slow rate of people being brought over. It also shows that people cared. They didn’t just turn their backs on the holocaust, but instead did everything in their power to save the Jews from death. It shows that there is hope in humanity, that people would risk their lives to save others’ lives; if many people work together and help just a little, then big results can occur. Even though it said that only 6-8 people could fit in one ship, it shortly after says that collectively the Danish fishing boats saved a vast majority of the Danish Jews. Obviously one person didn’t do that. It was a collective effort between many Danish fishermen who wanted to make a difference, and it paid off when they all worked together.

    These two vehicles were crucial factors to both sides of the Holocaust. The trains helped travel mass numbers of Jews in a deceptive manner. The Danish boats were extremely important to the safety of the Danish Jews and showed that people need to help the jews and not turn their backs to the Holocaust. How the trains help my understanding of the Holocaust is how terrible the moving process of the Jews was. Prior to knowing the horrors the trains brought, I had thought the only hardships were in the work camps. The trains show me that the Nazi’s had no concern for Jewish life. They just crammed as many of them in trains as if they were objects rather than human beings. It also shows how cruel the Nazis were by deceiving these innocent Jewish people by posing as if they were sending the Jews to work when really they were sending them to their deaths. The Danish boats as I said before show that there was and still is some decency in humans.

    http://www.elpasoholocaustmuseum.org/ This website is that of a holocaust museum in El Paso. The first thing I noticed when I entered this page is that it said:
    “The mission of the El Paso Holocaust Museum & Study Center is:
    -to educate the public, particularly young people, about the Nazi Holocaust as a way of ensuring that similar acts will not be repeated
    -to honor those who perished in the Holocaust and those who survived;
    -to oppose prejudice and bigotry by reminding the world of the importance of acceptance, the value and dignity of human life, and of the consequences of negating these principles.”

    This is pretty self explanatory. It shows that museums find it crucial to have holocaust museums and to teach it in schools, so the holocaust does not happen again. It’s important to know what big mistakes were made in the past that lead to a lot of chaos, because if new generations get it in their head that things like anti-semitism are awful, then history will not repeat itself.

    Sorry for the long response…

    • I had forgotten about the scene you linked. It is truly horrific and heart wrenching but to do what the Nazis did, they had to be masters at deception. We saw that the way Hitler dealt with other political leaders and how they manipulated their captives. You bring up some great points in your response. One thing that is fascinating about all of the guy’s links are all of the Holocaust museums out there. I believe we have DC, El Paso, Houston, Illinois and Los Angeles. I did not know there were so many. That alone says something about how many communities feel it necessary to remember this event. Thank you.

  11. I am starting off answering the question ” What do the train car and boat tell us about the Holocaust.” The train was one of the main symbols of the Holocaust. It should how much the Jews were mistreated and abused. After researching deeply in the Train car I found out that he Germans attempted to disguise their deadly intentions, referring to these deportations as “resettlement to the east.” The victims were told they were being taken to labor camps, but in reality, from 1942, deportation for most Jews meant transit to extermination camps. Deportations on this scale required the coordination of numerous German government ministries and state organizations, including the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA), the Transport Ministry, and the Foreign Office. The RSHA coordinated and directed the deportations; the Transport Ministry organized train schedules; and the Foreign Office negotiated with German-allied states about handing over their Jews. It took so much effort just to eventually kill thousands of innocent people. They wouldn’t provide food or even water when traveling. They packed hundreds of people into a small packed area that would make people sick. When they got to the camps they were than separated by gender and strength. The old were killed making the Jews incorporate Social Darwinism( survival of the fittest).

    On the other hand the boat was a sign of freedom. On September 28, 1943, Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German diplomat, secretly informed the Danish resistance that the Nazis were planning to deport the Danish Jews. The Danes responded quickly, organizing a nationwide effort to smuggle the Jews by sea to neutral Sweden. The Danish rescue effort was unique because it was nationwide. It was not completely successful, however. Almost 500 Danish Jews were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia. Nevertheless, the boats should a sign of courage and hope to the Jews. People stood up against the Nazis and despised there way of life.

    To answer the question “What emotions rise up when you read and look at these images?” I didn’t think much of the pictures when I first looked at them. After reading about the two vehicles my emotions have dramatically changed. I am disgusted by the train car. It should how evil some human being can be. It honestly makes me sick to my stomach. Thank God for the people brace enough to form the boat showing some goodness out of dark situations.The Los Angeles portrayed the Holocaust in many similar ways. Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust (LAMOTH) is the oldest Holocaust museum in the United States. They want to educate everyone so that history does not repeat itself.

    • I love your reply when you say at first you didn’t think much of the pictures. Yes. Artifacts from the past don’t have much meaning until we give them meaning. And we see through the pictures posted and other links that museums and historians do wonderful jobs interpreting things and evoking emotions out of us from pretty mundane items like an old train car and boat. As we have discussed this year, always ask why is this thing (a boat, monument, picture, etc.) displayed, how is it displayed and interpreted? NIce job!

  12. The combination of an oral history helps interpret these artifacts by giving the history a more emotional and connected side because instead of just reading about something, oral history is a first person perspective and really has an effect. I think if there were not words with the train car that it would impact the ability to tell about the holocaust because there are details in the words that deepen the impact of the holocaust. For example, how on the stones it talked about 80 to 100 people crammed in there, freezing temperatures in winter and boiling in the summer, and it talks about the “smell of death”; all of these examples show how horiffic the holocaust was but without the writing it does not seem as bad. When I see these I get mixed emotions of sorrow for those who were put through the holocaust and some anger that people were able to do this to eachother.
    When watching the video and reading the plaque about ferrying jews out of denmark, I realized how big of a national civilian effort it was to save almost all of their jewish population. Tons of people helped get them to the shipping towns or cities and then the fisherman would transport them out. I see examples of courage and faith in people like Sam Childers who are fighting for and helping poeple in Africa effected by the LRA, a rebel malitia that commits horrible war crimes to men, women and children.
    These vehicles help my understanding of the holocaust because it shows that many people were against what the nazi’s were doing even though some countries just gave up their power like denmark. I also understand how effecient the nazi’s were at doing their task (getting rid of the jews) but I also see the loop holes like with the fishing boats. I think the museum wants me to take away the deep facts from the holocaust not just a glazed over book preview.
    http://www.ushmm.org/research/collections/

    • Well said, Joey. I think you raise a great point that for how “efficient” the Germans were, fishing boats were able to skirt through their system. Thank you for the link too. That has some fascinating collections including a photographer’s images of Poland falling in 1939.

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s